The weakness of evolutionary theory can be demonstrated by the tautologies and circular reasoning that is employed to provide “evidence” for large scale evolution.
Even many evolutionists ruefully admit that this charge is undeniable with regard to the circularity invoked in dating rock layers.
Convergent Zones are areas where two lithospheric plates come together.
If one or both of the plates is oceanic (denser), subduction will occur.
(Welles, Samuel Paul, “Paleontology,” In some cases darwinists have recognized circularity as a typical problem in evolutionary models and worked to avoid it.
prompting him to make careful observations of geological events including earthquakes and volcanoes during his journey.
Stratigraphy is the study of rock layers (strata) deposited in the earth.
It is one of the most challenging of geologic subdisciplines, comparable to an exacting form of detective work, yet it is also one of the most important branches of study in the geologic sciences.
10, 2010.) “In about 1830, Charles Lyell, Paul Deshayes, and Heinrich George Bronn independently developed a biostratigraphic technique [geologic column] for dating Cenozoic deposits based on relative proportions of living and extinct species of fossil mollusks….
Strangely, little effort has been made to test this assumption.
Earth's history, quite literally, is written on the strata of its rocks, and from observing these layers, geologists have been able to form an idea of the various phases in that long history.